What is Matter?
Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. This means everything around you is matter. Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything around us which retains all of the chemical properties of an element. Additionally, an atom is made up of protons, electrons and neutrons. Take a look at the model of an atom. The middle of an atom is the nucleus (red and green). This where the neutrons and protons are housed. The blue represents the electrons which are on the outside of the nucleus on the energy levels/orbitals.
Molecules are made up of two or more atoms of the same element, or different elements which are chemically combined together. Molecules can be diatomic elements or compounds. Compounds consist of atoms of two or more different elements that are chemically bound together. This means that all compounds are molecules, but not all molecules are compounds.
Mixtures consist of two or more different elements and/or compounds which can be separated by physical means. Two types of mixtures are homogeneous mixtures which are evenly mixed together and heterogeneous mixtures which have an not evenly mixed together.
What are the Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter?
A physical property is a characteristic of matter that you can be observed and/or measured without changing the identity of the substance. Examples of physical properties include color, melting point, boiling point, density, color, etc. A chemical property is the ability of a substance to undergo a chemical change. Examples of chemical properties include, heat of combustion, reactivity, flammability, etc.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Properties
Another way to classify matter is through intrinsic properties and extrinsic properties. Intrinsic properties are properties that do not depend on the amount of material that you have. For example, color, state of matter, taste, texture, density, solubility, melting point, freezing point, boiling point and conductivity are intrinsic properties. Extrinsic properties depend on the amount of the substance you have. For example, mass, weight, volume and length are extrinsic properties.